Mansion house and garden in Hirschfelde

Mansion house and garden is located in the  Hirschfelde colony near Werneuchen, in the district of Barnim, approximately 20 kilometers from the North-Eastern city border of Berlin.

 

Historians say that the concept of the Hirschfelde garden is so unique, that it could have had a significant influence on the european garden-art. It is because specific patterns of sculpture used in the garden space had appeared here for the first time.

 

The Hirschfelde garden was founded by the renowned industrialist and art collector from Berlin, Eduard Arnhold. He chose this place for his country mansion in the beginning of the 20th Century. He expanded the old garden for the purpose of exhibing the art works from his collection.

 

Today, not much is left from the original beauty of the Arnhold's garden. As the years went by, garden paths, alleys, glades had grown wild. All the original viewing axes had dissapeared except for the main one – the avenue leading North-East from the mansion house to Gamengrund forest.

 

From the numerous sculptures of the original garden only one survived the war – it is the bronze deer statue, today moved to the center of the Hirschfelde colony.

 

Hirschfelde Mansion house today

Hirschfelde Mansion house today

 

Acces from Berlin and Hirschfelde map  [PDF 0.4 MB]

Acces from Berlin and Hirschfelde map

[PDF 0.4 MB]

 

 

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History of the garden

 

The first manor garden was established in Hirschfelde in the middle of 19th Century. The estate was bought in 1753 by the Prussian Minister of Justice, Levin-Friedrich von Bismarck. Here he built a manor house with a little garden.

 

Over the years Hirschfelde had several owners each of whom had expanded the garden. During that time, the summer pavillon and the pond with a fountain were built.

 

In the beginning of the 20th Century Hirschfelde manor (including the garden) was bought by Eduard Arnhold. This renowned industrialist of Jewish origin was one of the five richest Berliners, and the greatest art patron in the city. He also owned a big art collection. He turned the Hirschfelde manor into an exclusive country residence. With the help of an architect Paul Baumgarten he enlarged the garden to 22 hectares and turned it into a unique landscape garden with an extensive sculpture exposition.

 

Inside the garden, one could walk along the white park benches, numerous cupid statues, and see among others the open air theatre, sunclock, chinese teahouse and rosarium.

 

But the most precious exhibits were:

  • Roman marble fountain from 79 AD – an archeology find from Italian Lucca
  • Bronze deer statue
  • Carrara marble bull statue

 

At the end of the 2nd World War the garden was pludered and destroyed, then it was abandoned and  finally grew wild. Priceless sculptures were destroyed, stolen or transferred to other locations.

 

The precious Roman fountain was placed on the list of the most valuable missing items of the German art and culture heritage. After the war part of the garden was built-up with residential buildings – new ways and paths were traced. The rest of the garden grew wild with new trees and bushes.

 

After the fall of Communism the mansion house with part of the garden's meadows was given back to the inheritants of the former owners. Most of the former landscape garden, including new-built playground, belongs to the local community and is now open to the public. The rest of the garden is preserved as a history and nature monument.

 

Hirschfelde mansion house in 1840 Märkisches Museum in Berlin

Hirschfelde mansion house in 1840
Märkisches Museum in Berlin

 

Fountain (79 AD)

Fountain (79 AD)

 

Bronze deer statue – now moved to the center of Hirschfelde

Bronze deer statue –
now moved to the center of Hirschfelde

 

Garden Hirschfelde – ca. 1925

Garden Hirschfelde – ca. 1925

 

Garden Hirschfelde – 2014

Garden Hirschfelde – 2014

 

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Stands of trees in their current state

 

Hirschfelde garden woods actually consist of:

  • original garden afforestation from before 1904
  • afforestation from the garden-development period (1904-10)
  • gap-filling plantings from the twenties of 20th Century
  • Extensive amount of self-seeding plants from the post-war era
     

The garden meadows have been overgrown with young trees and bushes, which in turn has led to the viewing axes being concealed and disturbing the uniformity of the original old tree stands.

 

Official garden evaluation from 1992 concluded, that 167 trees from the Hirschfelde garden meet the criteria to be a nature monument according to Brandenburger law. These are the following:

  • Complete lime avenue consisting of 60 common limes (Tilia x vulgaris)
  • 40 western hemlocks (Tsuga helerophylla)
  • 25 common purple beeches ( Fagus sylvatica f. Purpurea)
  • 20 European black pines (Pinus nigra)
  • 17 London planes (Platanus x hybrida)
  • 3 Small-leave limes (Tilia cordata)
  • 2 Thujas (thuja spez.)
     
Tsuga heterophylla

Fagus sylvatica f. Purpurea

Pinus nigra

     

Platanus x hybrida

Tilia cordata

Thuja spez.

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chestnut avenue

Chestnut avenue

 

 

In the Hirschfelde garden – way to the GamengrundIn the Hirschfelde garden – way to the Gamengrund

 

 

 

 

 

Former central axis of the garden – remains of the fountain visible in the foreground

Former central axis of the garden – remains of the fountain visible in the foreground

 

Hirschfelde Garden landscapesHirschfelde Garden landscapes

 

 

Hirschfelde Garden landscapes

Hirschfelde Garden landscapes

 

Hirschfelde Garden landscapes

Hirschfelde Garden landscapes

 

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References:

  • Dr. Rainer Zeletzki (Vortrag, 01.09.2011)
    "Historische Entwicklung der ehemaligen Gutsparkanlage in Hirschfelde und ihre regionale Bedeutung für die Barnimer Feldmark"
  • Dr. agr. Claudia Kosmehl, Gutachten zum Park Hirschfelde, Berlin, 1992
 

Photos: Banim plus Lutz Weigelt, IS.RADWEG. Detlef Kaden, Luftbild Barnim Dr. Reinhard Schliebenow, Sibylle Lösch

Drawings: büro-ix Karola Richardt, Petra Kaden

Maps: IS.RADWEG. Detlef Kaden